55) specifying length of time to achieverare/medium/well done beefsteaks (by steak thickness). Well done times (only)for veal cutlets, veal chops, mutton chops, ham, pork chops and bacon."To obtain the epicure's rare beef, the internal temprature of the cut during roasting should be only 123 degrees Fahrenheit. Thermometer readings: Beef, rare, 140 degrees; medium, 160 degrees; well done, 170 degrees."---Joy of Cooking, Irma S. 201)[NOTE: this chart is not included in the original 1931 edition.]Prudence Penny's Cookbook's chapter on cooking meat offers broiling chart (p. Meats roasted on open fires released pleasing aromas, enhanced product flavor, and made the food easier to chew. Ancient western peoples so valued cooked meats that consuming anything raw was considered "barbarian."In the earliest days of civilization, most animals were kept for work (oxen to plough), textiles goods (sheep for wool), and sustainable edible products (cows and goats for milk & cheese; chickens for eggs). Slow cooking in some kind of broth rendered these tough sinews edible. 384 Let him be fed with thin Panada, Water and Barly-grewels, Chicken or other small Broath, Harts-horn Jelly, sometimes a rear poach'd or a new laid Egg.1754 A. The temperature there is lower than in the oven."---"Cook Meat Slowly, Say Texas Experts," New York Times, December 22, 1942 (p. Food historians generally agree the discovery of cooking was accidental. In sum: if it tastes good, people willorder.[Meat science 101: cooking methods/times of cooking effects flavor, texture & taste]"We cook meat for four basic reasons: to make it safe to eat, easier to chew and to digest (denatured proteins are morevulnerable to our digestive enzymes), and to make it more flavorful... It providessalts, savory amino acids, and a slighlt acidity to the tongue, but offers littel in the way of aroma. Many restaurants have placed warnings/disclaimers on menus with regardsto the risks involved with meat served at the lower end of the cooking spectrum. 198-199)"Chart for roasting meat by the modern method... 1861), although it was current in English writing from the 18th cent. for roasts and from 95 to 99 degrees for braised meat."---Experimental Cookery, Bell Lowe [John Wiley & Sons: New York] 1932 (p.
The meat is chewy yet soft, so that chewing compresses it instead ofcutting through it.
They recognized the effect of cooking on the outcome of meat.
Ancient Greeks and Roman physicians "prescribed" cooking methods by humoral theory.
The texture of rawmeat is a kindk of slick, resistant mushiness.
The fluid release is at its maximum when the meat is onlylightly cooked, or done 'rare.' As the temperature increases and the meat dries out, physical change gives way to chemicalchange, and to the development of armo as cell molecules break apart and recombine with each other to form new moleculesthat not only smell meaty, but also fruity and floral, nutty and grassy (esters, ketones, aldehydes)... F j b, Poched egges are better than egges rosted hard or rere.1542 A. 21st century American meat eaterscontinue to enjoy their meats from tartar to well.